It is not yet possible to answer whether a person who has ever had SARS-CoV-2 may get sick again in the future, but T-cells in a patient’s body show positive immune signals.
T cells are the body’s immune warriors that help us fight off some viruses. For Covid-19, the way T cells fight SARS-CoV-2 is still unclear.
Good news for vaccine development
Science Magazine recently reported the results of the authors’ research at La Jolla Immune Institute in California (USA) taking blood samples from 20 adults from Covid-19. The team found that all patients had CD4 + T cells that helped fight SARS-CoV-2 virus during treatment.
To test this data, the team tested blood samples collected between 2015 and 2018 to see if people who had not been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 could be immune to the virus. Results, the authors discovered the response of CD4 + T cells to SARS-CoV-2 in about 50% of the samples. These are research samples believed to have been exposed to the cold-causing corona virus – one of the seven corona virus types.
Earlier, a research team at Charité University Hospital in Berlin (Germany) discovered that CD4 + T cells could recognize a spike in protein in blood from 83% of Covid-19 patients and from 34% of people. Other healthy. This result was posted on medRxiv in April.
Virology expert Angela Rasmussen of Columbia University – one of the project’s members – judged this to be very useful data.
The study does not confirm whether people who remove SARS-CoV-2 from the body can avoid the virus in the future. However, the strong response of T cells to the virus is a positive signal for the long-term development of the immune system for the body. This helps researchers create a more effective vaccine.
Many countries around the world are developing more than 100 anti-Covid-19 vaccines at the same time. These studies are based on the mechanism of creating strains carrying the specific antigen region of SARS-CoV-2 virus. The antigen of SARS-CoV-2 in the vaccine component, when injected, helps the body produce active antibodies against the virus, avoiding the risk of infection. This is an important ingredient in vaccine production.
These proteins are made by B cells. They attach to SARS-CoV-2, preventing the virus from entering normal cells. In contrast, T warriors block infection in two different ways. On the one hand helps B cells and other immune cells work. On the other hand, warrior T targets and destroys infected cells.
Helps to decode the world’s immune mechanism
Before the start of the full-scale battle on the cellular scale, the virus had mixed into the body, enacting a defense layer in the mucus in the nose, throat to hunt for control targets. At the same time, the virus tries to disguise their existence to avoid waking the immune system.
Detecting viruses and invaded cells, the immune system will not arrest prisoners. Warrior T finds the cells turned into “virus factories”, after which the immune system tries to destroy them. This mechanism takes place by capturing “bribed” cells and firing molecules through the membrane, destroying the cell and everything inside.
SARS-CoV-2 viruses are newly discovered viruses. Until now researchers have not had enough time to find out exactly what warrior T is fighting against the new pneumonia virus.
However, the research results have partly explained the reason why a large number of the world’s population can cope with the new pneumonia virus. According to immunologist Steven Varga (University of Iowa, USA), it is due to some residual immunity when exposed to the common cold virus.
However, studies have not tried to prove that people who are likely to cross react will not get Covid-19 in the future. Although somewhat answering the world’s immune mechanisms, the question of the role of T cells remains open.
Scientists have not yet been able to conclude whether warrior T has any role in removing SARs-CoV-2 or whether they can even cause dangerous reactions inside the body when responding to viruses.
This result still sparked the production of antibodies and vaccines against the virus. It is necessary to stimulate the help of T cells.
Most vaccines under development are aimed at creating an immune response against the spike. However, the La Jolla team study determined that T cells respond to certain viral proteins.
It shows that the vaccine “hitting” these proteins is also effective. With this data, we will have more than one vaccine production mechanism to combat Covid-19.